Thursday, October 31, 2013

3D Photonics

After the invention of the laser in 1960, optics turned into photonics. In todays telecommunication technology, photons have already become the main carrier of information. During the last decades, a number of pioneering developments such as, e.g., the concepts of photonic crystals and metamaterials have opened the door to a completely new class of materials. Molding the flow of light as well as controlling the dynamics of photons are two key issues. The properties of such nanostructured materials are subject of current research activities.

Shown below is a series of structures fabricated by means of the direct laser writing process achieved with Photonic Professional systems.

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3D square spiral structure out of SU-8.

Three-dimensional photonic crystal of cubic symmetry fabricated
by two photon polymerization.

Three-dimensional photonic crystal of cubic symmetry fabricated
by two photon polymerization.

Bi-chiral photonic crystals, produced by the group of
Prof. Dr. Martin Wegener (KIT)

3D photonic quasicrystal with a five-fold rotational symmetry.
The structure was written into the photoresist SU-8.
Image: Dr. Alexandra Ledermann (KIT)

Circular spirals seen from above. This structure was written into the
chalcogenide glass As2S3.

Further examples of 3D structures consisting of circular spirals.

3D photonic crystal structure according to the layout provided
by Mr. Ivan Shishkin, ITMO, Russia.

3D photonic crystalline diamond (PCD) structure according to
Physical Review Letters 100, 013901 (2008) and Physical Review
B 82, 115116 (2010). With friendly permission of
Prof. Dr. Keiichi Edagawa, Institute of Industrial Science,
The University of Tokyo. Material: IP-L 780.

Light cone array along the publication "Microphotonic
parabolic light directors fabricated by two-photon lithography" by J. H.
Atwater, P. Spinelli, E. Kosten, J. Parsons, and C. Van Lare in Appl.
Physics Letters 99, 151113 (2011).

3D photonic crystal known under the acronym SP2 - standing
for slanted pore structure. Originally proposed for anisotropic
etching techniques or GLAD "2" stands for the number of separate
drilling/etching/GLAD-processes. With our technique these
structure can directly be written into a photosensitive material in one
step. Later on these structures can be replicated or inverted e.g. in
silicon with our techniques.